One-Stop Source
Of Soybean Meal Information

Composition

STANDARD DEFINITIONS
Soybean Cake or Soybean Chips is the product after most of the oil is extracted from whole soybeans by pressure or solvents from soybeans.  A name descriptive of the process of manufacture, such as “expeller’, “hydraulic” or “solvent extracted” is used in the brand name.  It shall be designed and sold according to its protein content.

Soybean Meal is ground soybean cake, ground soybean chips or ground soybean flakes.  A name descriptive of the process of manufacture, such as “expeller’, “hydraulic” or “solvent extracted” is used in the brand name.  It shall be 2designed and sold according to its protein content.

Soybean Mill Feed is the by-product resulting from the manufacture of soybean flour or grits and is composed of soybean hulls and offal from the tail of the mill.  A typical analysis is 13% crude protein, 32% crude fiber and 13% moisture.

Soybean Mill Run is the by-product resulting from the manufacture of dehulled soybean meal and is composed of soybean hulls and such bean meats that adhere to the hull in normal milling operations.  A typical analysis is 11% crude protein, 35% crude fiber and 13% moisture.

Soybean Hulls are a by- product of soybean processing consisting primarily of the outer covering of the soybeans or seed coat.  A typical analysis is 10-12% crude protein, 36-40% crude fiber and 9-13% moisture.

References: http://www.nopa.org; and http://ingredients101.com;

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
Soybean Flakes and 44% Protein Soybean Meal
are produced by cracking, heating and flaking soybeans and reducing the oil content of the conditioned product by the use of hexane or homologous hydrocarbon solvents.  The extracted flakes are cooked and marketed as such or ground into meal.  Standard specifications are as follows.


Protein
Fat
Filter
Moisture
minimum 44.0%
minimum 0.5%
maximum 7.0%
maximum 12.0%

Soybean Flakes and High Protein or Solvent Extracted Soybean Meal are produced by cracking, heating and flaking dehulled soybeans and reducing the oil content of the conditioned flakes by the use of hexane or homologous hydrocarbon solvents.  The extracted flakes are cooked and marketed as such or ground into meal.  Standard specifications are as follows.

Protein
Fat
Filter
Moisture
minimum 47.5-49.0% (as determined by the buyer and seller at time of sale)
minimum 0.5%
maximum 3.3-3.5%
maximum 12.0%

Reference:
http://www.nopa.org


SOYBEAN MEAL COMPOSITIONAL DATA
Typical values for soybean meal and soybean products can be found in Appendix I and II.  Soybean meal is a fairly consistent feed ingredient; therefore these average values should be of value in programming feed formulation computers.  Some of the major feed formulators will analyze each lot of soybean meal for key nutrients.  This provides accurate information on nutrient levels but adds to the cost of feed formulation.  Many feed formulators will use a combination of average table values for some nutrients, selective sourcing their soybean meal and upgrading their ingredient database as new values are developed.


IMPROVING SOYBEAN COMPOSITION
Soybean growers are investing through the United Soybean Board to enhance soybean oil and meal composition. The program is called QUALISOYä.  The program is designed to accelerate the development and eventual commercial availability of soybeans with enhanced compositional traits that focus on the needs of oil and meal users. An objective of the program is to enhance greater demand of U.S. produced soybeans and enhanced economic value for a broad range of producers. To accomplish this objective, the United Soybean Board has embarked on a series of research, planning and implementation activities.

The research priorities for improving soybean meal included increasing levels of certain essential amino acids, improving soy protein’s amino acid balance and digestibility, reducing selected carbohydrates, improving phosphorus availability and improving overall utilization. The research targets will enhance soybean meal’s feeding value and also have a positive environmental impact by reducing nutrient levels in livestock and poultry waste.

Primary targeted traits include increasing the methionine and cystine by 50%; reducing phytate bound phosphorus by 50%; and increasing the metabolizable energy by about 10%. Secondary traits include increasing the digestibility of soybean protein by 5% and increasing the level of lysine, threonine and tryptophan by more than 20%. These traits would reduce synthetic amino acid, dical phosphate and fat supplementation needed for many livestock and poultry diets.

Part of the research challenge will be to make sure that the new soybean cultivars are high yielding and competitive with other varieties available to the soybean grower. Since some of the traits have limited economical value by themselves, it will be important to stack the traits in new varieties to increase their economic value. Soybean growers are interested in expanding public and private research that will achieve these goals to improve soybean composition and make soy protein even more valuable to the meal user.

More information on the QUALISOY program is available from the United Soybean Board at 314-579-1593 or on their website at www.unitedsoybean.org


REFERENCES ON SOYBEAN MEAL COMPOSITION
Batal, A.B., and co-workers. 2001. Variation in international soybean meal quality. Abstract presented at the Midwestern Section of ASA and the Midwest Branch of ADSA 2001 Mtg., Des Moines, IA. Abstract #160.

Baize, John C.  2000. Global Soybean Meal Sampling and Analysis Activity (Final Report); Submitted to American Soybean Association and United Soybean Board by John C. Baize and Associates; 7124 Carol Lane, Falls Church, VA 22042-3714;

Charron, C.S. and co-workers. 2005. Correlations of oil and protein with isoflavone concentration in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr). J. Agric. and Food Chem. 53(18): 7128-7135.

Cromwell, G.L. and co-workers. 1999. Variability among sources and laboratories in nutrient analyses of corn and soybean meal. J. Animal Sci. 77: 3262-3273.

Douglas, Michele W., Carl M. Parsons and Michael R. Bedford. 2000. Effect of various soybean meal sources and Avizyme on chick growth performance and ileal digestible energy. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 9: 94-80.

Duke, S.O. and co-workers. 2003. Isoflavone, glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid levels in seeds of glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean. J. Agri. and Food Chem. 51(1): 340-344.

Easter, R.A., T. Hymowitz, K.T. Soltwedel and J.E. Pettigrew. 2002. Effect of soybean variety and processing of growth performance of young pigs. J. Animal Sci. 80:Suppl. 1, Abstract #640.

Emmert, Jason L. and David H. Baker. 1997. A chick bioassay approach for determining the bioavailable choline concentration in normal and overheated soybean meal, canola meal and peanut meal. J. Nutr. 127: 745-752.

Fasina, Y.O. and co-workers. 2003. Investigating the possibility of monitoring lectin levels in commercial soybean meals indicated for poultry feeding using steam-heated soybean meal as a model. Poultry Sci. 82(4): 648-856.

Goda, Y. and co-workers. 2002. Comparison of soyasaponin and isoflavone contents between genetically modified (GM) and non-GM soybeans. J. Food Hygienic Soc. Japan. 43(6): 339-347.

Goodson, J., J. Fontaine and B. Schirmer. 2005. NIRS can help predict amino acid content. Feedstuffs, September 19. p20-22, 24.

Goodson, J., J. Fontaine and B. Schirmer. 2005. NIRS analysis leads to formulation savings. Feedstuffs, July 24. p16-17.

Grieshop, C.M. and Fahey, G.C. Jr.  2001. Comparison of quality characteristics of soybeans from Brazil, China and the United States. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59(5): 2669-2673.

Haq, M.U. and A.P. Mallarino. 2005. Response of soybean grain oil and protein concentrations to foliar and soil fertilization. Agronomy J. 97(3): 910-918.

Hitz, W.D. and co-workers. 2002. Biochemical and molecular characterization of a mutation that confers a decreased raffinossaccharide and phytic acid phenotype on soybean seed. Plant Physiology 128(2): 650-660.

Hulke, B.S. and co-workers. 2004. Agronomic and seed characteristics of soybean with reduced phytate and palmitate. Crop Sci. 44(6): 2027-2031.

Hollung, Kristin, and co-workers. 2005. Evaluation of nonstarch polysaccharides and oligosaccharides content of different soybean varieties (Glycine max) by near-infrared spectroscopy and proteomics. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 9112-9121.

Ishiguro, T. and co-workers. 2006. Changes in soybean phytate content as a result of field growing conditionals and influence on tofu texture. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 70(4): 874-880.


Karr-Lilienthal, Lisa K. and co-workers. 2004. Maturity zone effects on composition of soybean meals sampled from 55 US processing plants. Poster W70, p330 of the 2004 Joint Annual Meeting abstracts.

Krishnan, H.B. and co-workers. 2006. Assessment of indigenous Nepalese soybean as a potential germplasm resource for improvement of protein in North American cultivars. J. Agric, and Food Chem. 54(15): 5489-5497.


Krishnan, Hari B. 2005. Engineering soybean for enhanced sulfur amino acid content. Crop Sci. 43: 454-461.

Kumar, V. and co-workers. 2006. Influence of growing environmental on the biochemical composition and physical characteristics of soybean seed. J. Food Composition and Analysis 19(2-3): 188-195.

Kumar, V. and co-workers. 2006. Compositional traits of soybean seeds as influenced by planting date in India. Experimental Agriculture 42(1): 19-28.

Kumundini, S., and co-workers. 2005. Management and production potential of value-added soybean cultivars in South Central USA. Agronomy J. 97(3): 904-909.

Kuhn, Gerda and co-workers. 2004. Different isoflavone content in soy-based diets are without influence on growth performance and carcass quality in pigs. Poster #T56, p177 of the 2004 Joint Annual Meeting abstracts.


Lee, D.J. and co-workers. 2000. Variation in the digestibility of amino acids in soybean meal from a single processing plant. Kansas State University Swine Day Proceedings, p109-115.

Mahmoud, Ahmed and co-worker. 2006. Effect of six decades of selective breeding on soybean protein composition and quality: A biochemical and molecular analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(11): 3916-3922.

Mebrahtu, T. and co-workers. 2004. Analysis of isoflavone contents in vegetable soybeans. Plant Food for Human Nutrition 59(2): 55-61.

Natarajam, S.S. and co-workers. 2006. Characterization of storage proteins in wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated (Glycine max) soybean seed using proteomic analysis. J. Agric. and Food Chem. 54(8): 3114-3120.

Neus, J.D., W.F. Fehr and S.R. Schnebly. 2005. Agronomic and seed characteristics of soybean with reduced raffinose and stachyose. Crop Sci. 45(2): 589-592.

Oltmans, S.E., W.R. Fehr, G.A. Welke and S.R. Cianzio. 2003. Inheritance of low-phytate phosphorus in soybean. Crop Sci. 44(2): 433-435.

Palacious, M.F., and co-workers. 2004. Effect of soybean variety and processing on growth performance of young chicks and pigs. J. Animal Sci. 82(4): 1108-1114.

Panthee, D.R. and co-workers. 2006. Quantitative trait loci controlling sulfur containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine, in soybean seeds. Theoretical Applied Genetics. 112: 546-553.

Panthee, D.R. and co-workers. 2006. Genomic regions associated with amino acid composition in soybean. Molecular Breeding. 17: 79-89.

Parsons, C.M., Y. Zhang and M. Araba. 2000. Nutritional evaluation of soybean meals varying in oligosaccharide content. Poultry Sci. 78: 1127-1131.

Parsons, Carl M., 1998. Variation in protein quality of soybean meal for poultry. Proceeding Arkansas Nutrition Conference, September 15-17.

Pope, Lynda and co-workers. 2004. Effects of altering bed depth in the desolventizer/toaster used in soybean meal preparation on nutrient digestibility by ileally cannculated pigs and cecetomized roosters. Poster #T43, p174 of the 2004 Joint Annual Meeting abstracts.


Power, W.J. and co-workers. 2006. Total and water-soluble phosphorus excretion from swine fed low-phytate soybeans. J. Animal Sci. 84(7): 1907-1915.


Ravindran, V. and co-workers. 2005. Apparent ideal digestibility of amino acids in dietary ingredients for broiler chickens. Animal Science 81: 85-97.

Ridley, WP. and co-workers. 2004. International Life Science Institute crop composition database documents natural variability in crop composition. Poster W54, p328 of the 2004 Joint Annual Meeting abstracts.

Seguin, P. and co-workers. 2004. Isoflavone content of soybean cultivars grown in eastern Canada. J. Science of Food and Agric. 84(11): 1327-1332.

Smiricky, M.R., and co-workers. 2001. The influence of soy oligosaccharides on apparent and true ideal amino acid digestibilities and fecal consistency in growing pigs. Abstract presented at the Midwestern Section of ASA and the Midwest Branch of ADSA 2001 Mtg., Des Moines, IA. Abstract #229.


Baize, John C.  1999. Soybean Meal Composition Study. Baize, John. 1999. Global soybean meal analysis project: Conducted for the Quality Committee of the United Soybean Board. John C. Baize and Associates, 7124 Carol Lane, Falls Church, VA 22042-3714.

Van Kempen, T. and co-workers. 2002. Regional and processor variation in the ileal digestible amino acid content of soybean meal measured in growing swine. J. Animal Sci. 80(2): 429-439.

Van Kempen, T.A. and co-workers. 2006. Selecting soybean meal characteristics preferred for swine nutrition. J. Animal Sci. 84(6): 1387-1395.

Vieira, R.F. and co-workers. 2005. Availability of soil nutrients, quality of grains and yield of soybean in soil treated with sewage sludge. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 40(9): 919-926.


Walker, D.R. and co-workers. 2006. Genetic mapping of loci associated with seed phytic acid content in CX1834-1-2 soybean. Crop Sci. 46(1): 390-397.

Weir, A.D. and co-workers. 2005. Use of NMR for predicting protein concentration in soybean seed based on oil measurements. J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc. 82(2): 87-91.

Wilcox, J.R. and R.M. Shibles. 2001. Interrelationships among seed quality attributes in soybean; Crop Sci. 41(1): 11-14.

SOYBEAN MEAL-ANALYSIS

Bedore, Nancy. 2000. The role of NIR in feed management. Feed Management 51: 23-24.

Dudley-Cash, W.A. 1998. NIR can provide accurate digestible energy, amino acid values. Feedstuffs. May 4.

Dyer, D.J. and P. Feng. 1997. NIR destined to be a major analytical influence. Feedstuffs. November 10.

Irish, G.G. and co-workers. 2003. Practical application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict amino acids in feed ingredients. Proc. Aust. Poultry Sci. Sym. 15: 69.

Llames, Cynthia and Jutta Horr. 2003. AminoNIR™ Transfer of NIR calibrations for examination of amino acids in the worldwide network. AminoNews™ 4(1): 15-18. (Copies of the report can be obtained from Degussa, 1255 Roberts Blvd., Suite 110, Kennesaw, GA. 30144-3694).

Roush, WB. and TL. Cravener. 1997. Artificial neural network prediction of amino acid levels in feed ingredients. Poultry Sci. 76: 721-727.

Schirmer, Barbara. 2004. AminoNIR? transfer-A special service tool: Collaborative NIRS studies showed excellent agreements in the predicted amino acid content in our worldwide network. Degussa Feed Additives, AminoNews, 5(3): 13-20.

Van Kempen, Theo, Shannon Peak and Yanrui Qiao.  2004. In vitro digestibility could meet quality control needs. Feedstuffs, February 23. p11-13.

Van Kampen, T. and D. Jackson. 1996. NIRS may provide rapid evaluation of amino acids. Feedstuffs. December 2.

SOYBEAN MEAL - QUALITY DIFFERENCES
Batal, A.B., and co-workers. 2001. Variation in international soybean meal quality. Abstract presented at the Midwestern Section of ASA and the Midwest Branch of ADSA 2001 Mtg., Des Moines, IA. Abstract #160.

Baize, John C. 1999. Soybean Meal Composition Study: Global soybean meal analysis project. (Conducted for the Quality Committee of the United soybean Board bt John C. Baize and Associates, 7124 Carol Lane, Falls Church, VA 22042-3714.

Brumm, Thomas, Charles Hurburgh and Glen Rippke. 2005. Quality of the 2004 soybean crop from the United States. www.soygrowers.org.

Douglas, Michele W., Carl M. Parsons and Michael R. Bedford. 2000. Effect of various soybean meal sources and Avizyme on chick growth performance and ileal digestible energy. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 9: 94-80.

Kim, H.K. and co-workers. 2001. Effects of soybean meal from different sources on sow and litter performance during gestation and lactation. J. Animal Sci. 79:Suppl.1 (abstract 880).

Lee, D.J. and co-workers. 2000. Variation in the digestibility of amino acids in soybean meal from a single processing plant. Kansas State University Swine Day Proceedings, p109-115.


Lee, H. S. and co-workers. 2004. Evaluation of protein dispersibility index as an indicator for soybean meal protein quality in growing pigs: I. Metabolic study. Poster T42, p174 of the 2004 Joint Annual Meeting abstracts.

Parsons, Carl M. 1998. Variation in protein quality of soybean meal for poultry. Proceeding Arkansas Nutrition Conference, September 15-17.


Pope, Lynda and co-workers. 2004. Effects of altering bed depth in the desolventizer/toaster used in soybean meal preparation on nutrient digestibility by ileally cannculated pigs and cecetomized rooster. Poster #T43, p174 of the 2004 joint Annual Meeting abstracts.


Appendix I - Soybean Meal Composition
Standard Definitions

Soybean Meal
Solvent
  Dehulled
Solvent
    Expeller   Full-fat
Dry Matter (%) 90   88   89   90  
Crude Protein (%) 44 .0 47 .8 42 .0 38 .0
Ether Extract (%) 0 .5 1 .0 3 .5 18 .0
Crude Fiber (%) 7 .0 3 .0 6 .5 5 .0
Ash (%) 6 .0 6 .0 0 .6 0 .59
Ruminant Dig, Protein (%) 37 .5 46 .6 35 .5 34 .1
Ruminant TDN (%)                  78   79   78   85  
Metabolizable Energy, Poultry (Kcal/#) 1020   1115   1100   1520  
Metabolizable Energy, Swine (kcal/#) 1405   1425   1360   1610  
                         
Amino Acids                        
Methionine (%) 0 .65 0 .70 0 .60 0 .54
Cysteine (%) 0 .67 0 .71 0 .62 0 .55
Lysine (%) 2 .70 3 .02 2 .70 2 .40
Tryptophan (%) 0 .60 0 .70 0 .58 0 .52
Threonine (%) 1 .70 2 .00 1 .70 1 .69
Isoleucine (%) 2 .50 2 .60 2 .80 2 .18
Histidine (%) 1 .10 1 .30 1 .10 1 .01
Valine (%) 2 .40 2 .70 2 .20 2 .02
Leucine (%) 3 .40 3 .80 3 .80 2 .80
Arginine (%) 3 .40 3 .60 3 .20 2 .80
Phenylalanine (%) 2 .20 2 .70 2 .10 2 .10
                         

Vitamins

                       
Vitamin E (mg/kg) 3 .0 3 .3 6 .6 31 .0
Thiamin (mg/kg) 1 .7 1 .7 1 .7 6 .6
Riboflavin (mg/kg) 3 .0 2 .6 4 .4 2 .64
Pantothenic acid (mg/kg) 13 .3 13 .2 13 .8 15 .6
Biotin (ug/kg) 320   320   320   286  
Folic acid (ug/kg) 450   700   450   3542  
Choline (mg/kg) 2743   2850   2673   2420  
Niacin (mg/kg) 59 .8 20 .9 36 .7 22 .0
 

Minerals

Calcium (%) 0 .25 0 .31 0 .20 0 .25
Total Phosphors (%) 0 .60 0 .67 0 .60 0 .59
Available Phosphorus (%) 0 .20 0 .21 0 .20 0 .20
Sodium (%) 0 .04 0 .04 0 .04 0 .04
Potassium (%) 1 .97 1 .08 1 .71 1 .70
Chloride  (%) 0 .02 0 .02 0 .20 0 .03
Magnesium (%) 0 .27 0 .28 0 .25 0 .21
Sulfur (%) 0 .43 0 .43 0 .33 0 .30
Manganese (ppm) 27 .5 0 .28 32 .3 30 .0
Iron (ppm) 120   171   160   75  
Copper (ppm) 28   13 .3 18   15  
Zinc  (ppm) 60   48 .5 59   35  
Selenium (ppm) 0 .10 0 .10 0 .10 0 .10

Reference: Feedstuffs ingredient analysis Table: 2007 Edition (September 12, 2007).


Appendix II - Soybean Product Composition
Standard Specifications
  Soybeans
Whole
  Soybean
Hulls
  Soybean
Mill Feed
Soybean
Mill Run
Dry Matter (%) 92 .0 91 .0 89 .4 88 .0
Crude Protein (%) 42 .8 12 .1 14 .9 13 .6
Ether Extract (%) 18 .8 2 .1 1 .8 1 .4
Crude Fiber (%) 5 .8 40 .1 36 .9 40 .7
Acid Detergent Fiber (%) 10   50   46   51  
Ash (%) 5 .5 5 .1 5 .0 5 .1
Calcium (%) 0 .27 0 .49 0 .42 0 .42
Phosphorus (%) 0 .65 0 .21 0 .21 0 .21
Potassium (%) 1 .82 1 .27 0 .21 0 .21
Magnesium 0 .29 0 .28   =   =
TDN (%) 91   77   48 .4 44  
NE-Lactation (Mcal/#) 0 .96 0 .80 0 .48 0 .43
NE-Maintenance (Mcal/#) 1 .03 0 .85 0 .45 0 .39
NE-Growth (Mcal/#) 0 .71 0 .55 0 .12 0 .03
Reference: Feedstuffs ingredient analysis Table: 2012 Edition (September 14, 2011).