The March 10th USDA’s World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates provide an early look at the coming season’s soybean/soybean meal supply and demand. While values can change due to weather and market conditions, it would appear that U.S. production of soybeans will be larger than previous years based on the number of acres to be planted to soybean and the anticipated soybean yields. USDA economists are also predicting a larger soybean crush and soybean export volume. Domestic use of soybean meal is anticipated to increase and meal prices are predicted lower. World production of soybean meal is predicted to increase due to greater soybean production in the U.S., Brazil and Argentina.
The value-added soybean meals for swine experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of high protein soybean meal (SBM-HP), low oligosaccharide soybean meal (SBM-LO), and conventional soybean meal (SBM) fed to weanling pigs. The three soybean meals (SBM) contained 54.9, 53.6 and 47.5% crude protein, respectively. In the first experiment, the coefficient of ileal standardized digestibility (CISD) of amino acids (AA) in the three ingredients was measured using eight barrows weighing about 14.3kg were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. The pigs were allotted to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with four periods (seven days per period) and four diets per square. Three diets contained SBM-HP, SBM-LO, or conventional SBM as the sole source of amino acid. The fourth diet was a N-free diet that was used to determine basal ileal endogenous losses of amino acid. Results of this experiment indicated that the CISD for all amino acids was not different among the three sources of SBM.
In the second experiment, the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in the three sources of SBM were determined using 24 barrows (weighting about 12kg). The pigs were randomly allotted to four diets; a corn-based diet and three diets containing corn and one of the three sources of SBM. Results indicated no differences were observed for DE (18.20, 17.92, 18.27, and 17.15MJ/kg dry matter) and ME (17.31, 16.93, 17.76, and 16.96MJ/kg dry matter) among SBM-HP, SBM-LO, SBM-CV, and corn diets.
In the third experiment, a total of 120 weanling barrows weighing about 6.8 kg were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments with ten pens per treatment and four pigs per pen. Diets containing the different sources of SBM were formulated based on the values for CISD of AA and ME that were calculated in the previous two experiments. No differences were observed during the experiment for average daily gain, average daily feed intake, or feed efficiency. The researchers concluded that the greater concentration of digestible amino acids in SBM-HP and SBM-LO compared with conventional SBM are effectively utilized by weanling pigs, which implies that the nutritional values of SBM-HP and SBM-LO are greater than that of conventional high-pro SBM.
Baker, K.M., Liu, Y. and Stein, H.H. 2014. Nutritional value of soybean meal produced from high protein, low oligosaccharide, or conventional varieties of soybeans and fed to weanling pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 188: 64-73.
A comparison of Soybean Oil Ingredients for Broilers was conducted to estimate the true metabolizable energy (TME) values of acidulated soybean oil soapstock and crude soybean oil and to evaluate their effect on broiler production. True metabolizable energy values of oils were estimated using a rooster assay. These determined values were then used to formulate broiler diets. Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to the two treatments and 8 replications, with 16 birds each. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis showed that soybean oil contained a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, whereas soybean soapstock had a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids. Soybean oil had higher TME values (8.99 Mcal/kg) compared to soybean soapstock oil (8.11Mcal/kg) (P < 0.05).
Results of the broiler feeding experiment did not show significant differences (P > 0.05) in weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion rate, or mortality between oil treatments. In conclusion, acidulated soybean oil soapstock was shown to have lower TME and TMEn values compared to crude soybean oil, however, it can be safely included in broiler diets without negatively affecting their productivity.
Narciso-Gaytan, C., A. Pro-Martinez, A. S. Hernandez-Cazares, C. A. Ruiz-Feria, D. Chan-Diaz, and E. Sosa-Montes. 2014. Acidulated soybean oil soapstock metabolizable energy value and its effect on broiler productivity. Poultry Sci. 93: (E-suppl.1) 440P, p 149.
Glycerin/Glycerol Use by Poultry: The influence of source and level of inclusion of raw glycerin in the diet on growth performance, digestive traits, total tract apparent retention and apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients was studied in broilers from 1 to 21 days of age. The experiment was a 2 × 4 factorial with two sources of glycerin and four levels of inclusion (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10%). The glycerin sources contained 87.5 or 81.6% glycerol. Study results indicated that the feed conversion utilization, and apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter and gross energy were significantly increased as the glycerin content of the diet increased while average daily gain was not affected. The researchers concluded that raw glycerin from the biodiesel industry can be used efficiently, up to 10% of the diet, as a source of energy for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age and that the energy content of well-processed raw glycerin depends primarily on its glycerol content.
Mandalawi, H.A., M.V. Kimiaeitalab, V. Obregon, D. Menoyo and G.G. Mateos. 2014. Influence of source and level of glycerin in the diet on growth performance, liver characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in broilers from hatching to 21 days of age. 93:2855-2863.
A laying hen study was conducted to determine the energy value of bi-distilled glycerin and the comparative performance of diets containing bi-distilled glycerin, linseed oil and/or soybean oil. The treatments consisted of the replacement of energy from soybean oil with graded levels of bi-distilled glycerin and/or linseed oil. Results indicated hen performance was not affected by the level or oil source (P > 0.05). Bi-distilled glycerin showed gross energy, AME, AMEn and energy coefficient of metabolizability of 4,217 kcal/kg, 3,362 kcal/kg, 3,505 kcal/kg, and 79.7%, respectively. The conclusions developed were the dietary energy from soybean oil in the layer’s diet can be replaced with energy from bi-distilled glycerin and/or energy coming from a mixture of 50% linseed oil and plus 50% bi-distilled glycerin.
Melo, T.S. and co-workers. 2014. Bi-distilled glycerin, linseed, and soybean oil in laying hen diets: Digestibility and performance. Poultry Sci. 93(E-Suppl. Poster 429, page 142.
Soybean meal use alligators digestibility trials were conducted to determine the amino acid availability of selected ingredients (corn, soybean meal, soy protein concentrate, wheat gluten, and menhaden fish meal) fed to American alligators at inclusion levels of 30% or 45% of the diet. Protein, energy and amino acid digestibilities for the various feed ingredients were determined in two size classes of alligators. Results indicated that American alligators can efficiently digest crude protein and energy in an assortment of plant products of varied chemical composition which could be used as alternatives to animal protein in compounded diets. Availability of dietary essential amino acids was also usually high (often greater than 90%) when these ingredients were provided at levels of 30–45% of the diet.
Reigh, R.C. and M. B. Williams. 2013. Amino acid availability of selected plant products and fish meal for American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Aquaculture 412-413:81-87.
Two 100-day soybean meal crayfish experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of practical diets with different protein content and substitution possibilities of fish meal protein with soybean meal (SBM) protein on survival and growth of juvenile crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from the onset of exogenous feeding. In the first experiment, four practical diets were prepared to contain 35, 40, 45 or 50% crude protein. Results indicated that no differences in survival rates for crayfish fed 45 or 50% dietary protein and weight gain peaked at 45% crude protein.
In the second experiment, four practical crayfish diets (50% crude protein content) were prepared to test replacement levels of FM protein with 0, 24, 35, and 45% SBM. Replacement levels of 0% and 25% SBM enabled the highest survival (average: 74%) and growth rate. The researchers concluded that a 45–50% dietary protein with 25% replacement of fish meal protein by SBM protein can be recommended for juvenile P. leniusculus during the first period of intensive rearing.
Fuertes, J.B., J.D. Celada , J.M. Carral , M. Sáez-Royuela , Á. González-Rodríguez. 2012. Effects of dietary protein and different levels of replacement of fish meal by soybean meal in practical diets for juvenile crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus, Astacidae) from the onset of exogenous feeding. Aquaculture 364-365: 338-344.
A soybean meal rainbow trout feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of the replacement of dietary fish meal and fish oil with oilseed meals (soybean or canola) and canola oil on growth, nutrient utilization, body composition, diet digestibility and hematological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Seven diets were formulated; the control diet contained fish meal and fish oil as the main protein and lipid sources. For the experimental diets, 40% of fish meal protein was substituted with soybean meal, canola meal or a soybean/canola meal mixture, and these diets contained fish oil as the lipid source. Three additional diets were formulated with the same vegetable protein meals but with fish oil replaced by canola oil. Fish were fed twice daily to apparent satiation for 11 weeks. The results of this experiment indicated that when diets contain either fish oil or canola oil, canola meal and soybean meal can be incorporated into rainbow trout feeds at a combined 32% inclusion level (replacing 40% of fish meal protein) without inducing significant negative effects on growth, nutrient utilization or health.
Güroy, D., B. Güroy, D.L. Merrifield, A.A. Tekinay, S, J. Davies and ?. ?ahin. 2012. Effects of fish oil and partial fish meal substitution with oilseed oils and meals on growth performance, nutrient utilization and health of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture International 20(3): 481-497.