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Chemical composition and nutritional value of raw soybeans from Brazil and USA arriving to European ports

Cámara, L., L. Aguirre, A. de Juan, J. Mabrouk, H. Kadardar, G. Talegón and G. Mateos

The aim of this study was to compare the quality and chemical characteristics of raw beans exported to Europe from Brazil (BRA) and USA in 2021/2022. Representative samples (7 kg each) of raw beans from BRA (n = 12) and USA (n = 7) were collected at random from different processing plants in Europe by specialized personnel. The samples were classified in the lab into high quality (HQ) and damaged seeds (whole and splitted beans included) and foreign material. The damaged (3.2 vs. 6.3% for the USA and BRA) and the HQ (93.2 vs. 91.9% for USA and BRA beans) raw beans were analyzed for major constituents in the same lab by the same technician, according to official methods. Chemical composition (CP, EE, sucrose, oligosaccharides, CF, and NDF), protein quality indicators [urease activity (UA), PDI, KOH, trypsin inhibitors activity (TIA)], and oil quality traits (oleic acidity and peroxide index) were determined. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, with country of origin of the beans (USA vs. BRA) and bean quality (damaged vs. HQ) as main factors, using MIXED procedure of SAS. Independent of the country of the origin of the beans, damaged raw beans had more DM, CP, and less sucrose and stachysose than HQ beans (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001, depending on the trait). Protein quality indicators differed also between damaged and HQ beans with PDI (P < 0.001), KOH (P < 0.001), and TIA (P < 0.05) values being lower for the damaged beans than for the HQ beans. Damaged raw beans had higher peroxides index and oleic acidity than the HQ beans (P < 0.001). Country of origin of the beans did not affect CP of damaged beans (36.6 vs. 37.0%; P > 0.10). Damaged beans from USA had higher sugar and oligosaccharides content than BRA beans (P < 0.05). The quality of the CP and lipid fractions was also affected by the country of origin of the beans, with lower UA (P < 0.05), PDI (P < 0.001), TIA (P < 0.01), and peroxide index (P < 0.01) for the damaged beans from BRA than for the USA. Ether extract (P = 0.001), DM (P = 0.082), CP (P = 0.093), and NDF (P = 0.088) were lower for the HQ USA than for the HQ BRA beans. Also, USA HQ beans had more sucrose (P < 0.05) and stachyosse (P < 0.01) and higher UA (P < 0.05), PDI (P < 0.01), and TIA (P < 0.01) values than BRA HQ beans, but no differences were found for KOH.

It is concluded that USA raw beans have lower percentage of damaged grains than Brazilian raw beans. Irrespective of the origin, damaged beans had more CP (N × 6.25) and less sucrose and oligosaccharides than HQ beans. CP and lipid fractions quality were reduced in the damaged beans.