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U. S. Soybean Quality Report-2018

December 2018

Each year since 1986 the American Soybean Association, United Soybean Board and the U.S. Soybean Export Council have supported a survey on the quality of the new U.S. soybean crop.  This survey is intended to provide new crop quality data (composition characteristics) to aid international customers with their purchasing decisions.  This year’s report has been completed and made available to soybean customers.

The survey involves researchers at the University of Minnesota requesting representative soybean samples from farmers.  The request for soybean samples is weighted and based on total land devoted to soybean production in each state in an attempt to closely match U.S. soybean production.  This year 1,518 soybean samples were returned for analyses.  The samples are analyzed for protein, oil, and amino acid concentration by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using a Perten DA7250 diode array instrument with calibrations developed by the University of Minnesota and in cooperation with Perten.   Regional and U.S. average values were determined by weighting averages based on production values for each state.

Overall, when compared with the 2017 crop, the average protein concentration was 0.2 percentage higher and the oil concentrations were 0.2 percentage lower.  Compared with the long-term average (1986-2017), 2018 US soybeans were 0.4 percent lower in protein and similar in oil.  The sum of protein plus oil was 53.1 percent; these values should allow soybean processors to simultaneously achieve both good soybean oil yields and reasonable protein concentrations in the resulting soybean meal.

Table 2 provides information on amino acid levels in soybean meal.  There was little regional variation for lysine (expressed as a percent of the 18 primary amino acids) or for the other essential amino acids (cysteine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine and valine) measured.  The amino acid balance and quantity of essential amino acids are critical to optimum animal/bird performance.  These results indicate there are only minor differences between regions which result in a consistent soybean meal that benefits feed formulators.

Table 3 provides a historical look at average protein and oil values for soybean meal during the duration of the quality survey (1986-2018).  One can see a small change in soybean composition over the 30-year period; protein seems trending about a percentage lower whereas oil concentration of the soybean seems to be similar.

This study demonstrates that the composition of U.S. soybeans and soybean meal are consistent year to year.  The feed formulator can rely on soybean meal’s consistent nutrient values in their efforts to produce high quality feeds needed for livestock, poultry and aquaculture operations.

Table 1.

USSEC 2018 Soybean Quality Survey Data

Region
State
Number of Samples
Protein (%)*
Std. Dev.
Oil (%)*
td. Dev.
Western Corn Belt (WCB)
Iowa
191
33.7
1.1
19.1
0.7
Kansas
46
34.8
1.4
18.6
0.6
Minnesota
221
34.0
1.1
19.2
0.6
Missouri
67
34.5
1.2
19.2
0.7
Nebraska
110
33.9
1.1
18.6
0.7
North Dakota
86
33.5
1.4
18.3
0.8
South Dakota
80
34.0
1.1
18.6
0.6
Average
801
34.0
1.2
18.7
0.7
Eastern Corn Belt (ECB)
Illinois
276
33.8
1.1
19.2
0.7
Indiana
100
34.5
1.1
19.1
0.6
Michigan
65
34.7
1.3
18.8
0.8
Ohio
102
35.0
1.0
18.7
0.7
Wisconsin
33
34.4
1.0
18.7
0.7
Average
576
34.3
1.1
19.0
0.7
Midsouth (MDS)
Arkansas
31
35.1
1.4
19.6
0.8
Kentucky
16
34.6
1.5
19.5
0.7
Louisiana
14
34.8
1.3
19.8
0.9
Mississippi
19
34.8
1.4
19.6
0.8
Oklahoma
1
37.0
18.3
Tennessee
12
34.5
1.2
19.5
0.6
Texas
1
34.7
18.3
Average
94
34.8
1.4
19.6
0.8
Southeast (SE)
Alabama
4
34.0
1.7
19.6
0.7
Georgia
2
36.5
0.4
18.5
0.9
North Carolina
13
35.5
1.7
19.4
0.9
South Carolina
0
Average
19
35.3
1.6
19.4
0.9
East
Delaware
3
34.7
0.3
19.4
0.3
Maryland
8
35.3
0.9
18.7
0.6
New Jersey
1
34.8
18.6
New York
6
34.4
0.8
18.6
0.5
Pennsylvania
8
35.5
0.6
19.0
1.2
Virginia
2
34.4
1.2
20.0
0.6
Average
28
34.9
0.8
19.2
0.7
US
Average
1,518
34.2
1.2
18.9
0.7
Average of 2008-2017
34.6
1.4
18.9
1.0
* 13% moisture basis
** Regional and US average values weighted based on estimated production by state estimated by USDA.

Table 2.

USSEC 2018 Soybean Quality Survey Amino Acid (AA) Data

Region
State
Number of Samples
Protein* (%)
Lysine (% 18AAs)
5 EAAs** (% 18AAs)
7AAs*** (% AAs)
Western Corn Belt (WCB)
Iowa
191
33.7
6.9
15.5
25.5
Kansas
46
24.0
6.8
15.4
25.3
Minnesota
221
34.0
6.9
15.4
25.4
Missouri
67
34.5
6.8
15.4
25.4
Nebraska
110
33.9
6.9
15.5
25.5
North Dakota
86
33.5
6.9
15.5
25.5
South Dakota
80
34.0
6.9
15.5
25.5
Average
801
34.0
6.9
15.5
25.5
Eastern Corn Belt (ECB)
Illinois
276
33.8
6.9
15.4
25.4
Indiana
100
34.5
6.8
15.3
25.3
Michigan
65
34.7
6.8
15.3
25.3
Ohio
102
35.0
6.8
15.3
25.3
Wisconsin
33
34.4
6.9
15.4
25.4
Average
576
34.3
6.8
15.3
25.3
Midsouth (MDS)
Arkansas
31
35.1
6.8
15.3
25.3
Kentucky
16
34.6
6.9
15.4
25.4
Louisiana
14
34.8
6.8
15.2
25.3
Mississippi
19
34.8
6.8
15.3
25.3
Oklahoma
1
37.0
6.8
15.2
25.0
Tennessee
12
34.5
6.9
15.3
25.3
Texas
1
34.7
6.8
15.5
25.5
Average
94
34.8
6.8
15.3
25.3
Southeast (SE)
Alabama
4
34.0
6.8
15.4
25.4
Georgia
2
36.5
6.8
15.2
25.1
North Carolina
13
35.5
6.8
15.3
25.2
South Carolina
0
Average
19
35.3
6.8
15.3
25.2
East
Delaware
3
34.7
6.8
15.3
25.3
Maryland
8
35.3
6.8
15.3
25.2
New Jersey
1
34.8
6.9
15.4
25.5
New York
6
34.4
6.9
15.4
25.5
Pennsylvania
8
35.5
6.8
15.3
25.3
Virginia
2
34.4
6.9
15.4
25.3
Average
28
34.9
6.8
15.3
25.3
US
Average
1,518
34.2
6.9
15.4
25.4
Average of 2008-2017
34.6
6.9
15.4
25.4
* 13% moisture basis
** Five essential amino acids (cysteine, lysine. methionine, threonine & tryptophan
*** Seven essential amino acids, five listed above plus isoleucine & valine
**** Regional and US average values weighted based on estimated production by state estimated by USDA.

Table 3.

Historical Summary of Quality Data of U.S. Soybeans

Year
Protein*
Oil*
Sum**
1986
35.8
18.5
54.3
1987
35.5
19.1
54.6
1988
35.1
19.3
54.4
1989
35.2
18.7
53.9
1990
35.4
19.2
54.6
1991
35.5
18.7
54.2
1992
35.6
17.3
52.9
1993
35.7
18.0
53.7
1994
35.4
18.2
53.6
1995
35.5
18.2
53.7
1996
35.6
17.9
53.5
1997
34.6
18.5
53.1
1998
36.1
18.1
54.2
1999
34.6
18.6
53.2
2000
36.2
18.7
54.9
2001
35.0
19.0
54.0
2002
35.4
18.4
53.8
2003
35.7
18.7
54.4
2004
35.1
18.6
53.7
2005
34.9
19.4
54.3
2006
34.5
19.2
53.7
2007
35.2
18.6
53.8
2008
34.1
19.1
53.2
2009
35.3
18.6
53.9
2010
35.0
18.6
53.6
2011
34.9
18.1
53.0
2012
34.3
18.5
52.8
2013
34.7
18.0
52.7
2014
34.4
18.6
53.0
2015
34.3
19.8
54.1
2016
34.4
19.3
53.7
2017
34.0
19.1
53.1
2018
34.2
18.9
53.1
Average (1986-2018)
35.1±0.6
18.7±0.5
53.7±0.6
* 13% Moisture bases
** Sum is the total of protein and oil concentrations