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Comparing Canola Meal and Soybean Meal in Diets for Weaning Pigs

Adebiyi, A.O. D. Ragland, O. Adeola, O. A. Olukosi
March 2018

Canola meal (CM) was compared to soybean meal (SBM) in an experiment involving 240 pigs weaned at 18 days and weighing about 9.6 kg. The pigs were fed pelleted wheat-based diets containing either 20% SBM or 20% CM solvent-extracted from common dark-seeded Brassica napus starting at two weeks postweaning for 28 days. Four CM samples were obtained from four crushing plants in Western Canada and contained (DM-basis) 39.7–46.2% CP, 3.4–4.1% ether extract, 17.5–21.4% ADF, and 1.2–8.0 µmoles/g total glucosinolates. The diets were formulated to provide 2.3 Mcal NE/kg and 5.1 g standard ileal digestible (SID) Lys/Mcal NE.

Results indicated that replacing SBM with CM reduced apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter by 3.7%-units, of gross energy by 3.6%-units, and of crude protein by 4.0%-units (P‹0.001). The digestible energy value of the four CM diets were similar to, but their predicted net energy value were 0.02 Mcal/kg greater (P = 0.027) than that of the SBM diet. Growth performance of pigs fed the four CM diets did not differ from pigs fed SBM. The researchers concluded that replacing 20% SBM in diets of weaning pigs with CM reduced ATTD of dry matter, gross energy and crude protein, while not reducing feed intake, weight gain, or feed efficiency. Variation in nutritive quality among these four Brassica napus CM samples did not affect growth performance of young pigs.

L. F. Wang, L.F., E. Beltranena, and R. T. Zijlstra. 2016. Diet nutrient digestibility and growth performance of weaned pigs fed canola meal samples varying in nutritive quality. J. Animal Sci. 94 (Suppl. 2): ASAS Midwestern Section (Abstract 224, page 103).

An 8 × 8 Latin square designed experiment was conducted feeding 8 ileal-cannulated grower pigs weighing 32 kg in a study to evaluate the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in five Brassica napus canola meal (CM) samples from five Western Canadian crushing plants. Pigs were fed eight diets (SBM, 5 CM samples, basal, and N-free). For SBM and CM diets, 40% of test feedstuff sample was mixed with 60% barley and wheat-based basal diet. Pigs were fed diets at 2.8 × maintenance (110 kcal of DE per kg of BW0.75) divided into equal 2 meals daily. Digesta was collected on day 8 and 9. The SID of crude protein and amino acids was determined by subtracting basal endogenous amino acid losses. On dry matter basis, the SBM and five CM samples contained 51 and 39–45% CP; 7 and 24–27% NDF; and 4.70 and 4.73–4.82 Mcal/kg GE, respectively.

The SID of the indispensable amino acids (except Histidine) and dispensable amino acids (except Glycine) were greater (P ‹ 0.05) for SBM compared to the five CM samples. The researchers reasoned that the SID of most amino acids was lower in CM compared to SBM was likely due to the greater fiber content in CM. However, the SID of amino acids differed among the five CM samples could not be associated to changes in chemical composition.

Le Thanh, B.V., X. Zhou , E. Beltranena and R. T. Zijlstra, 2016. Amino acid digestibility of five samples of canola meal fed to ileal-cannulated grower pigs. J. Animal Sci. 94 (Suppl. 2): ASAS Midwestern Section (Abstract 226, page 104).

The objective of this research study was to determine the apparent or standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids (AID or SID) in growing pigs fed diets containing three protein feedstuffs with different fiber characteristics at two dietary crude protein levels. Twenty pigs weighing about 35 kg were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. These pigs were offered six diets containing soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM) or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) that were either adequate (19%) or marginal (15%) in crude protein.

Results indicated that the AID of amino acids were greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet with the exception of amino acids Met, Cys, Trp and Pro. The AID for Gly and Asp were greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the corn-DDGS diet. The AID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05) in the DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. The SID of AA was greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet for amino acids except Trp and Pro. The SID of Ile, Leu, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05) in the DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. The researchers concluded that protein ingredient affects ileal amino acid digestibility and is closely related to dietary fiber characteristics, and a 4% reduction in dietary crude protein had no effect on ileal amino acid digestibility in growing pigs.

Adebiyi, A.O. D. Ragland, O. Adeola, O. A. Olukosi. 2015. Apparent or Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids of Diets Containing Different Protein Feedstuffs Fed at Two Crude Protein Levels for Growing Pigs. Asian-Australian J. Anim. Sci. 28(9): 1327-1334.