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U.S. Soybean Quality Report-2019

December 2019

Each year since 1986 the American Soybean Association, United Soybean Board and the U.S. Soybean Council have supported a survey on the quality of the new US soybean crop.  This survey is intended to provide new crop quality data (composition characteristics) to aid international customers with their purchasing decisions.  This year’s report has been completed and made available to soybean customers.

The survey involves researchers at the University of Minnesota requesting representative soybean samples from farmers.  The request for soybean samples is weighted and based on total land devoted to soybean production in each state in an attempt to closely match U.S. soybean production.  This year 1,226 soybean samples were returned for analyses.  The samples are analyzed for protein, oil, and amino acid concentration by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using a Perten DA7250 diode array instrument with calibrations developed by the University of Minnesota and in cooperation with Perten.   Regional and U.S. average values were determined by weighting averages based on production values for each state.

Table 1 provides protein, oil and standard deviation data for the various soybean producing states.  The regional averages for soybean protein and oil are relatively small and similar to historical trends.

Table 2 provides information on amino acid levels in soybeans produced in the various states/regions.  There was essentially little, or no, regional variation for lysine (expressed as a percent of the 18 primary amino acids) or for the other essential amino acids (cysteine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine and valine) measured.  The amino acid balance and quantity of essential amino acids are critical to optimum animal/bird performance.  These results indicate there are only minor differences between regions which result in a consistent soybean meal that benefits feed formulators.

Table 3 provides a historical look at average protein and oil values for soybean met="_blank">eal during the duration of the quality survey (1986-2019).  Overall, the 2019 soybean crop had similar levels of protein and oil compared to the 2018 crop.  Compared with the long-term average (1986-2018), 2019 US soybeans were 1.0% lower in protein and 0.3% higher in oil.  The sum of protein plus oil was 53.1 percent; these values should allow soybean processors to simultaneously achieve both good soybean oil yields and reasonable protein concentrations in the resulting soybean meal.

This study darget="_blank">a>emonstrates that the composition of U.S. soybeans and soybean meal are consistent year to year.  The feed formulator can rely on soybean meal’s consistent nutrient values in their efforts to produce high quality feeds needed for livestock, poultry and aquaculture operations.

Table 1. USSEC 2019 Soybean Quality Survey Data

Region
State
Number of Samples
Protein (%)*
Std. Dev.
Oil (%)*
td. Dev.
Western Corn Belt WCB)
Iowa
174
33.5
1.0
19.2
0.5
Kansas
38
36.1
0.8
18.8
0.5
Minnesota
181
33.6
0.9
18.6
0.6
Missouri
48
34.1
1.4
19.4
0.6
Nebraska
114
33.9
1.0
19.0
0.6
North Dakota
43
33.2
1.4
18.3
0.8
South Dakota
50
33.7
1.0
18.7
0.6
Average
648
33.8
1.1
18.9
0.6
Eastern Corn Belt (ECB)
Illinois
209
34.2
1.1
19.0
0.6
Indiana
84
34.6
1.2
19.1
0.7
Michigan
35
34.4
1.2
19.1
0.7
Ohio
89
34.9
1.1
18.8
0.8
Wisconsin
22
34.3
1.5
18.2
0.7
Average
439
34.4
1.2
18.90
0.7
Midsouth (MDS)
Arkansas
21
34.2
1.1
19.0
0.6
Kentucky
19
34.0
1.2
19.7
0.6
Louisiana
12
35.4
1.0
19.7
0.6
Mississippi
20
34.4
0.8
19.7
0.6
Oklahoma
1
33.4
20.2
Tennessee
16
33.6
1.0
20.1
0.7
Texas
Average
89
34.4
1.0
1.8
0.6
Southeast (SE)
Alabama
3
33.5
1.1
20.4
0.6
Georgia
1
34.7
19.6
North Carolina
12
33.9
1.4
19.7
0.8
South Carolina
Average
16
33.8
1.4
19.8
0.8
East
Delaware
2
35.0
0.0
19.3
0.3
Maryland
10
35.1
2.0
18.5
1.0
New Jersey
3
35.4
0.5
18.6
0.4
New York
8
34.5
1.1
18.0
0.5
Pennsylvania
8
34.0
1.5
18.4
0.6
Virginia
3
33.6
2.2
19.5
0.9
Average
34
34.3
1.6
18.8
0.7
US
Average
1,226
34.1
1.1
19.0
0.6
Average 2008-2017
34.6
1.3
18.9
1.0
* 13% moisture basis
** Regional and US average values weighted based on estimated production by state estimated by USDA.

Table 2. USSEC 2018 Soybean Quality Survey Amino Acid (AA) Data

Region
State
Number of Samples
Protein(%)*
Lysine (% 18AAs)
5 EAAs**
7 AAs***
Corn Belt (WCB)
Iowa
174
33.5
7.1
15.5
25.3
Kansas
38
35.1
7.0
15.4
25.1
Minnesota
181
33.6
7.1
15.5
25.3
Missouri
48
34.1
7.1
15.4
25.2
Nebraska
114
33.9
7.1
15.5
25.3
North Dakota
43
33.2
7.1
15.6
25.3
South Dakota
50
33.7
7.1
15.6
25.3
Average
648
33.8
7.1
15.5
25.3
Eastern Corn Belt (ECB)
Illinois
209
34.2
7.1
15.4
25.2
Indiana
84
34.6
7.0
15.4
25.1
Michigan
35
34.4
7.1
15.4
25.1
Ohio
89
34.9
7.1
15.3
25.1
Wisconsin
22
34.3
7.1
15.3
25.2
Average
439
34.4
7.1
15.5
25.2
Midsouth (MDS)
Arkansas
21
34.6
7.0
15.4
25.2
Kentucky
19
34.0
7.1
15.5
25.3
Louisiana
12
35.4
6.9
15.2
25.1
Mississippi
20
34.4
7.0
15.4
25.2
Oklahoma
1
33.4
7.0
15.4
25.1
Tennessee
16
33.6
7.1
15.5
25.3
Texas
Average
89
34.4
7.0
15.4
25.2
Southeast (SE)
Alabama
3
33.5
7.1
15.6
25.4
Georgia
1
34.7
7.0
15.2
25.0
North Carolina
12
33.9
7.1
15.5
25.3
South Carolina
Average
16
33.8
7.1
15.5
25.1
East
Delaware
2
35.0
7.0
15.3
25.1
Maryland
10
35.1
7.0
15.3
25.0
New Jersey
3
35.4
7.0
15.3
24.9
New York
8
34.5
7.1
15.5
25.2
Pennsylvania
8
34.0
7.1
15.4
25.2
Virginia
3
33.6
7.1
15.6
25.3
Average
34
34.3
7.1
15.4
25.2
US
Average
1,226
34.1
7.1
15.5
25.2
Average of 2008-2017
34.1
7.1
15.5
25.2
* 13% moisture basis
** Five essential amino acids (cysteine, lysine. methionine, threonine & tryptophan
*** Seven essential amino acids, five listed above plus isoleucine & valine
**** Regional and US average values weighted based on estimated production by state estimated by USDA.

Table 3. Historical Summary of Quality Data of U.S. Soybeans

Year
Protein*
Oil*
Sum**
1986
35.8
18.5
54.3
1987
35.5
19.1
54.6
1988
35.1
19.3
54.4
1989
35.2
18.7
53.9
1990
35.4
19.2
54.6
1991
35.5
18.7
53.9
1992
35.6
17.3
52.9
1993
35.7
18.0
53.7
1994
35.4
18.2
53.6
1995
35.5
18.2
53.7
1996
35.6
17.9
53.5
1997
34.6
18.5
53.1
1998
36.1
18.1
54.2
1999
34.6
18.6
53.2
2000
36.2
18.7
54.9
2001
35.0
19.0
54.0
2002
35.4
18.4
53.8
2003
35.7
18.7
54.4
2004
35.1
18.6
53.8
2005
34.9
19.4
54.3
2006
34.5
19.2
53.7
2007
35.2
18.6
53.8
2008
34.1
19.1
53.2
2009
35.3
18.6
53.9
2010
35.0
18.6
53.6
2011
34.9
18.1
53.0
2012
34.3
18.5
52.8
2013
34.7
18.0
52.7
2014
34.4
18.6
53.0
2015
34.3
19.8
54.1
2016
34.5
19.3
53.8
2017
34.1
19.1
53.2
2018
34.1
19.0
53.1
2019
34.1
19.0
53.1
Average (1986-2018)
35.1±1.4
18.7±0.9
53.8
* 13% Moisture bases
** Sum is the total of protein and oil concentrations